Japan's Views of WWII Rankles US Vets 04/25 14:05
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Lester Tenney endured three years as a Japanese prisoner
during World War II, but he has made peace with his former enemy. Yet as
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe prepares to address Congress on Wednesday,
in the 70th anniversary year of the war's end, something rankles Tenney about
Japan's attitude toward its past.
"They don't want the young people to know what really happened," complains
Tenney, now 94.
The Associated Press spoke to three U.S. war veterans about their surrender
in the Philippines in 1942 and their exploitation as slave laborers in Japan.
It's an episode of history most notorious for the Bataan Death March, when tens
of thousands of Filipino and American POWs were forced 65 miles on foot to
prison camps. Thousands are believed to have perished.
The AP also asked the veterans for opinions about Japan today. Japan issued
a formal apology to American POWs in 2009 and again in 2010, and has paid for
some veterans to travel to Japan, leaving them with a more positive view of the
Tenney, with the Army's 192nd Tank Battalion, said he was made to march for
eight days after his capture.
"You had to stand on your own two feet and you had to keep moving. If you
fell down, you died. If you had to go to the bathroom, you died. If you had a
malaria attack, you died. The Japanese would just kill you, period. You had to
stay on your feet. ... If you looked at a Japanese soldier in the wrong way, he
would beat the hell out of you."
After a 28-day journey by ship to Japan, Tenney worked at a coal mine near
the town of Omuta run by the Mitsui Mining Co., shoveling coal 12 hours a day
for three years.
He said British, Australian and Indonesian prisoners also worked there and
they had no protective gear, and they would injure themselves intentionally to
get days off. His weight dropped from 189 pounds to 97 pounds. He said Mitsui
has never responded to his letters calling for an apology.
(Mitsui & Co., which was disbanded after the war and then re-established as
a major industrial group, denies having any legal or historical responsibility
for Mitsui Mining Co.'s treatment of forced laborers before or during the war.
It says therefore it cannot comment on complaints or requests for apologies.)
"If Mr. Abe comes here I would like him to say, 'I bring with me an apology
from the industrial giants that enslaved American POWs.' He could say that very
easily. ... I'm afraid that when Mr. Abe leaves here, all of it's going to be
forgotten. They're going to forget about apologies to the POWs, they're going
to forget they did anything wrong. It's going to like whitewashing the whole
"You can't have a high-ranking country today if you're not willing to face
your past. They have to admit their failures. If they admit their failures,
then by golly they deserve to have the best."
After the war, Tenney became a professor of economics at Arizona State
University and today lives in Carlsbad, California. He has returned to Japan
five times and was instrumental in starting Japanese government-supported
"friendship" visits by POWs.
"The Japanese people were wonderful. They were very kind, they were very
hospitable, no question about it. They treated us beautifully ... And there's
no reason why they shouldn't. We didn't do anything wrong (in the war)."
Harold Bergbower, 94, was a private with the Air Force's 28th Bomb Squadron
when he was captured on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao and sent
eventually to Davao penal colony.
"We could not have been treated any worse in prison camp," he said. "It was
Intensely sick during the voyage, he cannot recall the journey to Japan, in
the broiling, closed holds of "hell ships" that carried POWs and Asian
laborers. They were starved of food, deprived of water. Only decades after did
he learn that the first ship he was on was hit in a U.S. bombing attack and
forced to dock for repairs. Thousands died on such voyages.
Bergbower spent two years in brutal labor, scooping ore into open furnaces
at a steel mill in the city of Toyama.
"When I got back to the States after the war, I was told to go home and
forget about it and that's exactly what I did. I didn't talk to anybody."
His view of Japan changed when he went on a friendship visit in 2011 and
returned to the factory where he'd been enslaved. Staff there apologized "from
the heart" for what the POWs had been through. "I came away with a much
different impression of Japan. We couldn't have been treated any better."
Bergbower, who lives near Phoenix, said he has forgiven the people of Japan,
but not the government.
Darrell Stark, 93, was a new recruit of the Army's 31st Infantry Regiment
when he was captured and eventually shipped to Yokkaichi, where he was forced
to shovel coal at a copper mill.
Five years after the war, Stark received a letter from a Japanese man who
showed him kindness and gave him food at the mill. Stark always regretted that
he never replied.
Stark suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, but he recovered and enjoyed
a long career as a corrections officer in Connecticut. He went to Japan on a
friendship visit last October, and the current deputy director of the mill
clasped his hand and apologized.
Stark has also exchanged letters with the son of the man, now deceased, who
showed him kindness 70 years ago.
"I found the people (in Japan) to be very friendly, the country very clean
and the people that I talked to were very nice. It is amazing what the two
countries have done together to accomplish what we have over all these years.
It's also amazing that with all this we have accomplished, they are not
completely coming out with the truth."
"It really upsets me there are certain individuals who have completely
ignored history and rewritten it to make it look like Japan was attacked, and
that there was no Bataan Death March and no cruelty at all on their part.
That's not all the people. But there are some.
"I think when (Abe) comes, and if he really wants to do something great for
his nation and maybe for the world, he should make an apology and be grateful,
in a way of appreciation, for things the two countries have done together. That
would just about wind it up right there, because we need to be allies."